Comparison of structural composition and advantages&disadvantages of automated assembly production lines
The automatic assembly production line is a system that assembles automatic machine tools and auxiliary devices according to the process flow through a workpiece transfer system and a control system, and then the entire assembly or part of the system that automatically assembles the corresponding product is called an automatic assembly production line or automatic line.
Automated assembly line delivery system
The conveying system usually adopts various conveying lines. Its function is to automatically convey workpieces on the one hand, and to connect various automated assembly special machines into a coordinated operation system on the other. Conveying systems usually use continuous operation. The most typical conveyor lines are: belt conveyor lines; flat top chain conveyor lines.
Usually, the conveyor line is designed as a straight line, and various automated assembly machines are placed directly above the conveyor line. The special automatic machine and the conveying line are designed and manufactured on the basis of various aluminum profiles. After debugging, the special automatic machine and the conveying line are connected and fixed through special connectors to make them a whole.
Various automatic loading and unloading devices for automatic assembly production line
Since the main assembly processes are performed by various automated assembly special machines, various automated assembly special machines naturally also need their own automatic loading and unloading devices. The most widely used are vibration plates and robots. The vibrating plate is used to automatically transport small parts, such as screws, nuts, rivets, small stamping parts, small injection molded parts, small die-casting parts, etc., and the robot grips a wider range of objects, both small parts and small parts Take parts with a certain size and weight.
In order to simplify the structure, in the design of the automatic special machine, usually the automatic loading and unloading manipulator is directly designed as a part of the special machine, and the ordinary loading and unloading operations only need to move in two directions. Therefore, this manipulator uses a matching linear guide mechanism and a cylinder to form a linear motion system in both vertical and horizontal directions. A suction cup or a pneumatic finger can be assumed at the end of the vertical arm.
For some simple process operations, the special machine does not need to remove the workpiece from the conveyor line. It can be directly performed during the conveyance of the workpiece on the conveyor line, such as inkjet marking and bar code labeling operations, which makes the structure of the special machine Greatly simplified; some processes need to make the workpiece in a stationary state, then you need to stop the workpiece on the conveyor line through the stop mechanism, and then proceed directly. However, some processes not only require the workpiece to be stationary, but also certain accuracy, such as laser marking operations. At this time, it is not enough to stop the workpiece on the conveyor line, because the conveyor line usually runs continuously. Under the action of the conveyor line, the workpiece will still produce a slight jitter. It is necessary to design a pneumatic mechanism to lift the workpiece up a certain distance, so that the workpiece is separated from the conveyor belt or the conveyor chain before performing the process operation. After the process operation is completed, the workpiece is lowered to the conveyor. Continue conveying on the belt or conveyor chain plate.
Various distribution, blocking and reversing mechanisms of automated assembly production lines
Since the workpieces are assembled from one machine to another in the order of the special machines until the final assembly process is completed, usually a material distribution mechanism is designed in front of each special machine on the conveyor line to separate the continuously arranged workpieces, and then Various stopping mechanisms are set up to form the temporary storage positions of the workpieces required by each special machine. After the workpiece reaches the temporary storage position, the robot on the special machine picks up the workpiece from the position and places it in the positioning fixture after the sensor confirms, and then performs the assembly process operation. Finally, the robot on the machine grabs the workpiece from this position and returns it to the conveyor line to continue conveying to the next special machine.
When it is necessary to change the attitude of the workpiece, it is necessary to set a suitable reversing mechanism, and then perform the process operation after changing the attitude direction of the workpiece.
Automatic assembly line sensor and control system
Each special machine completes its own assembly operation cycle and must have a corresponding sensor and control system. In addition, in order to make the assembly cycle of each special machine form a coordinated system, various workpiece positions must be set on the conveyor line. Sensors for detection and verification. For example, when the workpiece does exist and the control system needs to release the workpiece, the dispensing mechanism only starts to move, the workpiece temporary storage position does have a workpiece, and the control system requires the robot to pick up the workpiece for loading, and then the robot starts to pick, and so on.
Usually, a sequence control system is used to coordinate and control the process operations of each special machine. The process of the next special machine is performed after the process of the previous special machine is completed. When the current special machine has not completed the process operation, the next special machine must wait. State, until the workpiece passes the last special machine to complete all the process operations on the production line, which is very similar to the process of manual assembly line.
Various automated assembly special machines for automated assembly production lines
Various automatic assembly special machines include automatic loading and unloading devices, positioning fixtures, assembly execution structures, sensors and control systems, etc. Among them, positioning fixtures are designed according to the shape and size of specific workpieces, and assembly actuators are specially designed as needed to complete the process, and a large number of Use linear guide mechanism, linear bearing, ball screw mechanism and other components.
Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of using automated assembly production lines
The application range of the automatic assembly production line has a wide range of applications in industrial manufacturing and food processing industries.
1.Industrial manufacturing industry: The automated production line is widely used in the industrial manufacturing industry for automobile manufacturing, electric vehicle production, bicycle production, motorcycle production, electrical product production, and the production and assembly of other mechanical equipment and engineering machinery;
Food industry: Automatic assembly line in the food industry is widely used in packaging of instant noodles, milk, bagged food, boxed food production lines, and some bulk food packaging.
Advantages of using automated assembly lines
It is suitable for mass production, which reduces the production cost of the enterprise and improves the efficiency.
Standards and specifications for automated production line operations, the output per unit time is much more than manual. The use of automated production lines can significantly increase labor productivity and reduce costs. When the supply requirements are relatively large, because it can work for a long time, the operation efficiency is high, and it can be handled calmly. When people put automation into some hard manual labor or monotonous assembly line production, the automated production line does not have the tiredness and boredom of human operators, and this tiredness and boredom is precisely the decrease in the production efficiency of human operators in such production labor. major factor. While the automated production line frees people from heavy manual labor and monotonous work, it also greatly improves production efficiency.
Stable production process, high product consistency, and can work in extreme environments.
Manual operation has different understanding of quality management requirements, product quality, product packaging style, how much to fill, which side of the bag is placed up, and the results of manual operations are inevitably uneven. The automated production line operates in accordance with a set operating procedure. The production process of the entire process is stable and the consistency of the product is improved. Working in hazardous environments such as extreme temperatures or radioactive and toxic environments is a short board or impossible for human production. After wearing a full set of facilities such as heavy protective clothing, protective masks, and protective boots, not to mention With the increase of operation difficulty, we still cannot guarantee 100% safety for personal safety. When automated production lines are to be used, tasks beyond human capabilities become easy and feasible.
Disadvantages of using automated assembly lines
The initial investment cost of using an automated production line is relatively high. The automation of a new product or the construction of a new factory requires a huge initial investment, which is affected by the entire industry and economic situation. The return on investment of enterprises is often fluctuating of. Even if the machinery that has been developed has been recovered, it is expensive in terms of hardware and labor. This includes the need for a skilled maintenance department to maintain and maintain the normal working order of the automation system, maintain the continuous and stable operation of the automation system, and avoid production losses or the occurrence of defective parts.
Automated production lines usually require companies to have high product throughput, stable product design, and automated production lines are difficult to cope with frequent design changes. Products are usually fixed or change in a small range, and it takes a lot of time to manually adjust when changing varieties
The automatic production line implements automatic control and management. It is relatively technical and requires high technical and professional quality of the staff. It must have a certain cultural level and professional knowledge, and only specially trained personnel can be competent.
Comparison of structural composition and advantages&disadvantages of automated assembly production lines
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